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Currency Exchange

Some applications require multiple currencies. For example, a bank may hold balances in many different currencies. If a single logical entity holds multiple currencies, each currency must be held in a separate TigerBeetle Account. (Normalizing to a single currency at the application level should be avoided because exchange rates fluctuate).

Currency exchange is a trade of one type of currency (denoted by the ledger) for another, facilitated by an entity called the liquidity provider.

Data Modeling

Distinct ledger values denote different currencies (or other asset types). Transfers between pairs of accounts with different ledgers are not permitted.

Instead, currency exchange is implemented by creating two atomically linked different-ledger transfers between two pairs of same-ledger accounts.

A simple currency exchange involves four accounts:

  • A source account A₁, on ledger 1.
  • A destination account A₂, on ledger 2.
  • A source liquidity account L₁, on ledger 1.
  • A destination liquidity account L₂, on ledger 2.

and two linked transfers:

  • A transfer T₁ from the source account to the source liquidity account.
  • A transfer T₂ from the destination liquidity account to the destination account.

The transfer amounts vary according to the exchange rate.

  • Both liquidity accounts belong to the liquidity provider (e.g. a bank or exchange).
  • The source and destination accounts may belong to the same entity as one another, or different entities, depending on the use case.


Consider sending $100.00 from account A₁ (denominated in USD) to account A₂ (denominated in INR). Assuming an exchange rate of $1.00 = ₹82.42135, $100.00 = ₹8242.135:

LedgerDebit AccountCredit AccountAmountflags.linked
  • Amounts are represented as integers.
  • Because both liquidity accounts belong to the same entity, the entity does not lose money on the transaction.
    • If the exchange rate is precise, the entity breaks even.
    • If the exchange rate is not precise, the application should round in favor of the liquidity account to deter arbitrage.
  • Because the two transfers are linked together, they will either both succeed or both fail.


In the prior example, the liquidity provider breaks even. A fee (i.e. spread) can be included in the linked chain as a separate transfer from the source account to the source liquidity account (A₁ to L₁).

This is preferable to simply modifying the exchange rate in the liquidity provider's favor because it implicitly records the exchange rate and spread at the time of the exchange — information that cannot be derived if the two are combined.


This depicts the same scenario as the prior example, except the liquidity provider charges a $0.10 fee for the transaction.

LedgerDebit AccountCredit AccountAmountflags.linked